Currently, Astaxanthin (ASX) is a renowned compound for its commercial application in various industries comprising aquaculture, food, cosmetics, nutraceuticals, and pharmaceuticals.

It is worth mentioning that currently, 95% of ASX available in the market is produced synthetically using petrochemicals due to cost-efficiency for mass production.

Safety issues have arisen regarding the use of synthetic ASX for human consumption, while the ASX derived from H. pluvialis is the main source for several human applications, including dietary supplements, cosmetics, and food

Astaxanthin possesses an unusual antioxidant activity which has caused a surge in the nutraceutical market for the encapsulated product. Also, health benefits such as cardiovascular disease prevention, immune system boosting, bioactivity against Helycobacter pylori, and cataract prevention, have been associated with astaxanthin consumption

ASX is more bioactive than zeaxanthin, lutein, and β-carotene.

ASX has unique features that support its potential use in promoting human health.

ASX preserves the integrity of cell membranes by inserting itself in their bilayers, protects the redox state and functional integrity of mitochondria, and demonstrates benefits mostly at a very modest dietary intake, since its strongly polar nature optimizes the rate and extent of its absorption. Recently, ASX has attracted considerable interest because of its potential pharmacological effects, including anticancer, antidiabetic, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant activities as well as neuro-, cardiovascular, ocular, and skin-protective effects .
In particular, ASX has been reported to exhibit multiple biological activities to preserve skin health and achieve effective skin cancer chemoprevention

Astaxanthin decreased oxidative stress and inflammation and enhanced immune response
in humans

Immune cells are particularly sensitive to oxidative stress due to a high percentage of polyunsaturated fatty acids in their plasma membranes, and they generally produce more oxidative products. Overproduction of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species can tip the oxidant:
antioxidant balance, resulting in the destruction of cell membranes, proteins and DNA. Therefore, under conditions of increased oxidative stress (e.g. during disease states), dietary antioxidants become critical in maintaining a desirable oxidant: antioxidant balance.

This study showed a dietary astaxanthin decreases a DNA damage biomarker and acute phase protein, and enhances immune response in young healthy females.

Anti-inflammatory Benefits

Promotes Integrated Immune Response

Effects on Metabolic Syndrome

Effects on Circulation.

As people age, their red blood cells (RBCs) can be more susceptible to oxidative attack, resulting in peroxidative damage to the RBC membrane phospholipids,31 impairing its oxygen-carrying capacity.

Preliminary Benefits for Memory and other Higher Brain Functions .Astaxanthin might improve cognitive functions

Effect on Vision and Eye Fatigue .

Astaxanthin has been extensively researched for its benefits for vision, especially in Japan.

Astaxanthin also might relieve eye fatigue in persons using computer monitors. Extended work
at computer monitors is linked to eyes strain and to blurred vision, often accompanied by tensing of the muscles of the shoulder and low back.

Muscle Performance and Endurance

Effect on Helicobacter pylori in Functional Dyspepsia


In a 2008 RCT, astaxanthin was evaluated for functional dyspepsia (FD).

Effect on Mitochondrial Function


In a series of experiments with various cultured cell lines astaxanthin improved cell survival under oxidative stress (from the addition of antimycin A, which increases mitochondrial ROS generation). By adding an oxidant-sensitive molecular probe into the mitochondria, the researchers found that astaxanthin reduced the mitochondria’s endogenous production of oxygen radicals and protected the mitochondria against a decline of membrane
function that typically occurs over time in these cultures. Astaxanthin’s positive activity went even further; it increased mitochondrial activity in these cells by increasing oxygen consumption without increasing generation of ROS.

Skin-Protective Mechanisms of Astaxanthin

2.1. Antioxidant Activity

Oxidant events of skin aging involve damage to DNA, the inflammatory response, reduced production of antioxidants, and the generation of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) that degrade collagen and elastin in the dermal skin layer . There are many dietary or exogenous sources that act as antioxidants, including polyphenols and carotenoids.

ASX has recently caught the interest of researchers because of its powerful antioxidant activity and its unique molecular and biochemical messenger properties with implications in treating and preventing skin disease. Comparative studies examining the photoprotective effects of carotenoids have demonstrated that ASX is a superior antioxidant, having greater antioxidant capacity than canthaxanthin and β-carotene in human dermal fibroblasts.

In skin, ASX has been shown to improve dermal health by direct and downstream influences at several different steps of the oxidative stress cascade, while inhibiting inflammatory mediators at the same time [12]. Molecular and morphological changes in aged skin not only compromise its protective role, but also contribute to the appearance of skin symptoms, including excessive dryness and pruritus, as well as increased predisposition to the formation or deepening of wrinkles, dyspigmentation, fragility and difficulty in healing injuries, alteration in skin permeability to drugs, impaired ability to sense and respond to mechanical stimuli, skin irritation, and tumor incidence . The effects of ASX on hyperpigmentation suppression, melanin synthesis and photoaging inhibition, and wrinkle formation reduction have been reported in several clinical studies

2.2. Anti-Inflammatory Properties

2.3. Immune-Enhancing Effects

.Activated T cells and NK cells produce interferon-γ (IFN-γ), which is involved in immune regulation and B cell differentiation; therefore, ASX may enhance immune responses and potentially exert antitumor activity

2.4. Effects on Skin Damage

2.5. Effects on DNA Repair

Absorption

Astaxanthin ’s bioavailability is substantially affected by meal timing and by smoking.

The real breakthrough with this nutrient, however, is that it produces clinically significant antioxidant benefits in human subjects, including groups especially vulnerable to oxidative stress, such as smokers, the obese, and the overweight.

Can be ordered here. 100% pure Astaxanthin 17.5 mg/50 g in organic manual pressed olive oil

Madelena Tapliga

MSc Clinical Nutritionist, accredited Nutritionist of UK from Association for Nutrition (AfN)

Herbal Medicine

MLD therapist

To schedule an appointment, call 07947887043 or click here to use our online form.

references

Higuera-Ciapara, L. Félix-Valenzuela & F. M. Goycoolea (2006) Astaxanthin: A Review of its Chemistry and Applications, Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition, 46:2, 185-196, DOI: 10.1080/10408690590957188

One Reply to “Astaxanthin applications for human health and nutrition”

  1. Maddie is a brilliant researcher and all her products are made with love and with integrity, her main aim to help as many people as she can but in a non invasive way.
    I have learned so much lately from her and also benefited from her products, due not feeling well
    I have used both DMSO and Astaxanthin, following the protocol i have started to feel much better, energy levels are up and also helped me with my high blood pressure episodes.
    I also have a tincture which i take occasionally when i feel like starting a cold or headache and that it’s absolutelly fantastic as it’s stopping pain, cold symptoms straight away.
    I think this health aids are more important now but she is the creator of some wonderful cosmetic organic products
    Thank you Maddie🥰🙏
    P.S. Please make a dessignated area for feedback as other will find you more easily

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